The most important ecotourism development issues
Наиболее важные вопросы развития экологического туризма

Boltaev Sh.Sh. Lecturer, Department of Economics, Bukhara State University, Uzbekistan

Болтаев Ш.Ш. Преподаватель кафедры экономики, БухГУ, Узбекистан

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются вопросы концептуального определения экотуристической деятельности, формирование и развитие концепций экотуризма в отечественной и зарубежной науки и практики. Особое внимание уделяется анализу основных определений и принципов экотуризма. Автором определены основные направления и виды экологического туризма, а также наиболее важные вопросы развития экологического туризма.

Abstract

The paper addresses the issues of conceptual definition of ecotourism activities, formation and development of eco-tourism concepts in domestic and foreign science and practice. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of basic definitions and principles of ecotourism. The author identifies the main areas and types of ecotourism, as well as the most important ecotourism development issues.

Кeywords: ecotourism, the region, the development of eco-tourism, eco-tourism area, environment, nature, types of tourism, the principles of eco-tourism, ecotourism concept.

Ключевые слова: экотуризм, регион, развитие экологического туризма, области эко-туризма, охраны окружающей среды, природы, виды туризма, принципы экологического туризма, концепция эко-туризма.

International tourism in our day - make up more business. Every year, on a trip abroad sent about 800 million. Man. In addition, almost 2.8 billion. People spend their holidays in their own country. According to WTO estimates that industry revenue totals more than $ 1.5 trillion. USD.per year.

Ecotourism is based on the principles of sustainable tourism, taking into account its impact on economic, social and natural environment. Eco-tourism also includes the following specific principles which distinguish it from the wider concept of sustainable tourism:

- Actively contribute to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage.

- Involvement of local and indigenous communities in the planning, development and implementation of eco-tourism activities, which contributes to their well-being.

- Clarification of the tour value of natural and cultural heritage centers visited tour.

- Focus on individual travelers and organized tourist groups are small.

When people talk about traveling in nature, they often use the term ecotourism. Meanwhile, eco-tourism, on the one hand - a niche in the tourism market, which has high growth rates, on the other hand, the concept, the position of which is wider compatibility of the concept (meaning a positive human impact on nature). Ecotourism is an integral part of nature tourism, which in terms of more than a niche market and not a concept, a specific type of tourism, the impact of which can be very different (from the clearly negative to neutral and positive).

Incidentally, the term "ecotourism" is widely used in modern activities of protected areas and natural parks. The rapid growth of this kind of travel in the world in recent decades is due not only environmental degradation, but also more and "domestication" of popular recreation areas - mountain resorts, the coasts of warm seas, the use for the needs of the rural plains and forested lowlands.

The variety of terms corresponds to the breadth of content and multiplicity of specific forms of activity in this new field of tourism industry. There are many definitions of ecotourism, each of which reveals certain important aspects. Taken together, these definitions describe adequately and diversity, and the evolution of ideas about the goals and objectives of a new tourist industry.

We define eco-tourism as a tourist visiting the little known or unmodified areas with unique natural, historical and cultural resources that meet the basic principles of sustainable tourism development; strongly contribute to the socioeconomic development of the regions visited; They include educational and cognitive components; contribute to raising the level of ecological culture of traveling and living standards of the local population, as well as compliance with rather strict rules of behavior in the natural environment. Having analyzed the given definition of the concept of "eco-tourism", to draw some conclusions, which are defined as the basic principles of eco-tourism activities:

- Eco stimulates and satisfies the desire to communicate with nature through targeted travel in untouched or little altered nature, presented all over the world, as a rule, national and natural parks, reserves, sanctuaries, natural monuments and other categories of reserves.

- Eco-tourism has a relatively weak negative influence on the environment and therefore it is sometimes called "soft tourism". It is for this reason that it has become almost the only kind of natural resources within specially protected natural areas.

- Eco Tourism activities to prevent negative impacts on nature and culture, and encourage tour operators and tourists contribute to nature conservation and socio-economic development of territories.

- Ecotourism is tourism that combines relaxation, entertainment and environmental education for travelers and involve some fairly strict rules of conduct, compliance with which is an important condition for the successful development of the industry.

- Ecotourism development should be beneficial to the local population and should not be contrary to his interests and socio-economic development; therefore it suggests that local communities are not only working as a staff, and continue to live in a protected area, maintain the old way of life, to engage in traditional economic views, which provide gentle treatment of nature.

- Eco-tourism is understood as an integral part of the tourism industry, which produces and sells its tourist product and receive from this income, or as a tourist activity in nature, bringing profit for the preservation of the natural environment, as well as to improve the living standards of the local population.

- The main objectives of ecotourism are: environmental education, improving the culture of man's relationship with nature, the development of ethical behavior in the natural environment, upbringing sense of personal responsibility for the fate of nature and its elements, as well as the restoration of physical and spiritual powers of man, providing complete relaxation in a the natural environment.

Currently, a set of types and areas of tourism, listed as environmental, includes dozens of items. In particular, the majority of experts includes such areas as its green, adventure, nature-oriented, non-motorized, biological, rural, agroecological, soft, recreation, health and others. And this list is very long. The reason for this is the lack of a clear definition and boundaries of eco-tourism activities.

A number of authors in the field of eco-tourism includes travel related to satisfaction of amateur, professional and scientific interests, with training and education. To him such types of tourism can be classified as a religious, ethnic, and health and fitness. Consequently, the objects of ecological tourism can be both natural and historical and cultural monuments, protected areas and places of compact residence of unique ethnic groups have preserved their customs and traditions, which can be interesting for recreants from other regions and countries.

All of these forms of tourism and used to refer to those terms in one way or another have their origin and development of powerful influence on modern society ecological imperative, as well as the concepts of sustainability, or, more precisely, to support the development and conservation of biodiversity. Here is one definition in one of the most authoritative publications on tourism, "ecotourism - a kind of nature tourism, bringing together people traveling with the scientific and cognitive goals." This definition is more successful, but, nevertheless, is still too broad. In this case, the scientific and educational goals should be just environmental.

Turning now to the official definitions of ecotourism WTO gives the following definition of ecotourism: "eco-tourism - a tourism untouched corners of nature." More perfect is the determination of the US Ecotourism Society, IUCN: "Ecotourism - is any kind of tourism and recreation in nature, which does not harm natural complexes, contribute to nature conservation and improvement of the welfare of the local population."

As for professionals, environmentalists, they prefer to use the following definition: "Ecotourism - a kind of nature tourism, whose main purpose is ecological education of tourists for a minimum impact on the natural systems."

It is therefore necessary to determine the eco-tourism as an activity, based on the following principles:

- Travel in the nature, and the main content of such trips - acquaintance with nature, as well as local customs and culture.

- Minimizing the negative effects of environmental and socio-cultural nature, the maintenance of the ecological environment of stability.

- Promoting local socio-cultural nature and environmental protection.

- Environmental education and awareness.

- Participation of local people and that they receive income from tourist activity that causes them economic incentives for conservation.

- Cost-effectiveness and contribution to sustainable development of the regions visited.

The general lack of all of the above definitions, the loss of an essential component of eco-tourism activities - environmental education and formation of ecological consciousness.

The concept of eco-tourism can be represented by the following basic principles:

1. The principle of minimizing the negative impact: the natural and sociocultural compatibility as a fundamental condition; control, and participation by local communities; equitable access to natural resources; compliance with maximum permissible recreational loads.

2. The principle of gain and wide coverage: the creation of financial, economic and socio-cultural benefits of protected areas and local communities.

3. The principle of enhancing the environmental, ecological and cultural awareness, including environmental education, respect for the customs and traditional way of life of local communities, exchange of experience. According to Drozdov A.V., the following eco function:

- Enrichment of tourists vital general cultural and natural-scientific ecological knowledge, including in the field of personal and public environmental safety;

- Emotional recovery, getting rid of "urban" stress;

- Socialization of world travelers by forming their ecological culture, including new, important for the sustainable development of society value orientation and behavior, adequate environmental imperative;

- The formation of a tolerant attitude towards strangers before cultures and ethnic groups, to their way of life and traditions, adapted to the natural environment;

- Creation of new jobs for the local population;

- Stimulating traditional forms of nature, the production of organic food;

- Increased investment in infrastructure and services, and the protection of nature;

- The growth of the local population's welfare and development of special education, aiming at acquisition of tourist and environmental professions;

- Development of crafts;

- The development of local self-government. These definitions, principles and basic features of ecotourism show that it is appropriate to distinguish between two interpretations of ecotourism - a narrow (classical) and broad. It is interesting to note that the narrow interpretation of ecotourism prevails in countries with vast territories of Canada, US, Australia. Such an interpretation support and develop, above all, the representatives of the "green" movement. Broad interpretations adhere tourism experts and researchers from the Western European countries with very limited resources, "wildlife".

Greening of public consciousness and behavior and, in particular eco-tourism have in recent years a significant impact on the rigid forms of tourism. Now a lot of tourists during holiday willingly combine two or three weeks, "beach" program with short purely ecological excursions. They are, though preference is very comfortable rest, but in an environmentally favorable conditions, encourage the owners of hotels and resorts in power to take care of the environment, to implement the tourism industry in the protection of environmentally friendly technologies.

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